Power Structure Reform and Supervision System Reform
Abstract：After the Sixth Plenary Session of 18th National Party Congress，CCP pilots the National Supervision System Reform at Beijing city，Shanxi and Zhejiang provinces，which is a major political reform by building a cross-departmental supervision system.
Key Words：Supervision System Reform，Power Structure，Supervision by different political organs
The Constitutional Status of the National Supervision Committee System Reform
JiaoHong-Chang & Ye Yuan-Tao
Abstract：The announcement of the reform program about the supervision system fulfilled the requirement which was proposed by Xi Jinping，including perfecting supervision system，strategic design of supervision system，improving national monitoring organization and forming a comprehensive coverage of the national supervision system to state organs and civil servants. Setting up the supervision commission and granting its power must adhere to the principles of insisting reform，economy and efficiency，people sovereignty and rule of law. The paper attempts to study the Constitutional position of national supervision commission by analyzing its nature，status，structure and power.
Key Words：Nationalsupervision system，Reform Pilot，the Principle of the Constitution
The Lessons，Experiences and Countermeasures of National Supervision System Reform
Abstract：It is of great value to improve the effectiveness of the reform of the national supervision system by referring to the historical experience and lessons of the reform of the supervision system. From a historical point of view，it can be seen that only by expansion of institutions and personnel without changing its operation mechanism and releasing its effectiveness of the system，it is difficult to achieve the goal of anti-corruption. There is no big move of changing supervision organization and the personnel after the Eighteenth National Party Congress of the CCP，but the reform of the operating mechanism is largely progressive and manifests effectiveness. The reform of the national supervision system in the future should clearly know its major targets，sufficiently use supervision measures，continuously improve the internal reform of institutions，find the balance point of self-monitoring，and put the private sector under the supervision.
Key Words：Integrity，Anti-corruption，National Supervision System
The Supervision System Design of the Supervision Committee
Li Yong & Yu Xiang-ling
Abstract：Any power has the risk of arbitrary. The supervision committee has so great powers that its supervision system design is more complicated. It includes procedural supervision，self-supervision，lawyer supervision，social supervision，news media and public opinion supervision，Supervision of the NPC and its Standing Committee，supervisory supervision of higher authorities，judicial supervision，supervision within the party. Improving the supervision system to prevent the “light under the black” and to ensure that the national supervision of long-term credibility.
Key Words：Supervision Committee，Supervision System Design，Long-term Credibility
The Evolution of the Supervision Office in Ancient China
Abstract：The supervision office in ancient China gradually became normative and independent with a long development，forming two systems：censor and expostulation. The history of its evolution reflected the importance of the supervision system in maintaining national justifications，correcting illegal behavior as well as checking and balancing the power. In addition，it expressed the irreplaceable effect of the supervision office in using law to restrain rights and normalize the power. The rationality of the system and the accumulated experiences have great benefits to reality.
Key Words：Ancient Supervision Office，Evolution，Lessons
DemocraticCentralism in Selection and Appointment of CPC Cadres：Observations from Adjustment of the CPC Provincial Standing Committee Members （1983-2012）
Yang Zhu-song，Zhang Jun-yi & Hu An-gang
Abstract：Observations of the selection and appointment mechanism of CPC provincial standing committee members during 1983 to 2012 again prove the advantages of socialist political system with Chinese characteristics as follows：（1） Chinese political system is at heart democratic centralization：Centralization is the core，and the selection and appointment procedure manifests the spirit of democracy，using democracy to lower the decision-making risks brought by centralization. （2） Chinese political system is designed with the premise of maintaining stable political order as in serious political life，succession of leadership and continuity of major policies. （3） CPC is proactive in promoting institutional reform and self-adjustment，which enables it to better rise to challenges. Looking at the succession and its mechanism in CPC leadership on top and each level in the light of global “relay” of overall national competitiveness to better understand the superiority of the socialist political system with Chinese characteristics helps strengthen the conviction about the institutions embedded in socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Key Words：Communist Party of China （CPC），CPC Provincial Standing Committee，Selection and Appointment Mechanism
The New Type of Government-Business Relationship and the Modernization of
National Governance System in China
Abstract：Starting from the inspiration of “embedded autonomy” to the construction of new government-business relationship in China，this paper discusses the complexities and problems of government-business relationships in Chinese history，particularly since the reform and opening up. The author points out，how to resolve the problems of traditional government-business relationship and establish a new government-business relationship in China，is not only an economic issue，but also a vital political issue. Although the core requirements of the new government-business relationship are just two simple words—qin（close）and qing（pure），how to establish this new relationship is a huge and complicated project. Government-business relationship is not only related to government-enterprise relationship and official-businessman relationship，but also involves government-market relationship and government-society relationship. To some extent，the quality of government-business relationship determines the innovative capacity and international competitiveness of a country，and it is also the test-stone testing the effectiveness of economic reform and the modernization of the national governance system in China. In order to establish such a new type of government-business relationship，we need to implement comprehensive and coordinated reforms of government governance，market governance，social governance and corporate governance.
Key Words：The New Type Government-Business Relationship，Developmental State，Embedded Autonomy，Government Governance，Market Governance，Corporate Governance，Social Governance
The Strategic Design of the Reform on the Housing Provident Fund in China
Huang Yan-fen & Li Yi-da
Abstract：This paper explores the existing problems of the housing provident fund system and the difficulties in its reform. According to the national conditions of China and in order to establish a real estate basic system and a long-term mechanism that adapt to the socialist market economy，the paper re-defines the functions of the housing provident fund system，and suggests that a Housing Policy-oriented Financial system that is based on mutually-assisting should be established in order to break the limitations of the old system framework and guarantee long-term steady and healthy development of China’s real estate market.
Key Words：Housing Provident Fund，Strategic Design，Reform
The Bi-weekly Consultative Symposium：an Institutional Innovation of
Deliberative Democracy of CPPCC
Abstract：As the most remarkable institutional innovation of Deliberative Democracy in CPPCC，the bi-weekly consultative symposium has transformed from a nonscheduled consultation to a periodical deliberation and established a set of normative procedure. As a kind of consultative deliberation，it is characterized by its neutrality and authority. The bi-weekly consultative symposium embodies an institutional advantage of deliberative democracy in China，because it can link deliberation to decision-making effectively which is a big problem that has troubled deliberative democracy in western countries for a long time.
Key Words：the Bi-weekly Consultative Symposium，Consultative Deliberation，Institutionalization
Reconstruction of Health Care System Under the Context of ‘Silver Economy’：
an analysis on the relationship between elderly long-term care and medical services
Yang Yan-sui & Chen Cheng-cheng
Abstract：The health and longevity in the normal society stimulates the medical nursing services needs，including daily care，disability care，chronic disease management，rehabilitation after illness，emergency diagnosis and treatment，and the difference between sick and non-disease，medical and non-medical，residual and non-residual. Discussing long-term care for the aged in general may lead to the dislocation of resource allocation and the mismatch of service supply and demands. This article insists on the principle of “classification to improve the quality” and “integration to reduce costs”，which divides the long-term care needs into three categories：aging disability care，sick disability care and dementia disability care，and then the article compares the differences among the long-term care，elderly emergency treatment，late rehabilitation and chronic disease management in the following six dimensions：the number of days，the implementation of places，service contents，payment，beneficiary and means of payment· Moreover，we distinguish the connotation and extension of various types of long-term care projects for the aged，and then establish the system of long-term care for the elderly，and finally realize the integration of long-term care and medical service supply system.
Key Words：Elderly Long-term Care，Old Age Hypertension Management，Rehabilitation and Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment，Medical Service Integration
Fusion and Expansion：Social Work Research of Women in China and their Marriages
Abstract：The social work practice related to the women and their marriages and families is a profession and technology，which based on women ‘social work（material support），feminist social work （action and empowerment ）and family social work（System equilibrium），with the female as the axis，the gender and family theory as relying，the marriage and family as the work treatment. It takes intervention and action from one of the individual，family，community and ecosystem levels and finally promotes the women to face the challenges of life and enhance their well-being. The social work practice related to the women in the United States，their marriages and families have made great progress in the field of legislation，organization，personnel structure and practices，etc.，which is particular worthy of attention and learning. Thus based on the original work of women’s organizations and the neighborhood support work，the social work practice related to the women in the interior of China，their marriages and families should further integrate the professional social work and advocate a path of administrative，voluntary and professional development blending，thus a multi-service pattern with the presence of state，society and common people is formed.
Key Words：Women，Married Family，Social Work
Research on Panoramic Anti-poverty Safety Net Governance
Abstract：The social assistance system is the “last safety net” of the poor，which plays a key role in safeguarding vulnerable groups and resisting social risks. In the new period，“Big picture” of anti-poverty governance is facing with the new risk of expenditure poverty，stratification，poverty intergenerational transmission，rising costs，and restricting social governance. With the “Big picture” of anti-poverty safety net weaving as the starting point，and linking effectively the urban and rural subsistence allowances and poverty alleviation and development policies，we need to use a positive combination of social policy tools，learn from foreign safety net weaving technology experience，integrate subsistence allowances and special rescue system seamless convergence，and promote the process of institutional integration for social justice.
Key Words：Big Picture，Anti-Poverty，Safety Net，Social Assistance
Social Capital’s Function in the Government’s Economic Management
Abstract：The social capital means that all participants have the reciprocity expectation，mutual trust，shared knowledge and common expectations that could be fully used in the management of national economy，it can effectively improve the performance of economic management. Social capital can be generated and accumulated in the interaction and communication with the local governments，and it is a resource that can overcome the distortion of local government and enhance the performance of economic management. Improving the government’s management performance and correcting the distortion relationship through social capital，the common values must be established on cognitive elements，the local government’s broad participation and multi-center governance must be realized on the structural element；the full protection of the rule of law and other measures must be achieved in the path element.
Key Words：Social Capital，Economic Management，Economic Performance
The Structural Forces that Driving Global Debt
Abstract：At present，we have a lot of research on the personality of the debt expansion，and little on the common reasons. From the common perspective，many countries are undergoing structural changes. With the adjustment of industrial structure，the production factors flow from higher productivity sectors to lower productivity sectors，and it make the growth rate decline. On the other hand，in the process of urbanization，public funds flow from economic affairs to social affairs，and it accelerate the speed of financial expansion. The changes in the industrial structure and population distribution are synchronous and drive global debt together. We should prevent service industry growing too fast，and attract farmers settle in the city.
Development of Regional Equity Markets：Challenges and Solutions
Abstract：To accelerate the development of regional equity markets is an efficient way to lower micro，small and medium-sized enterprises’ （SMEs） financing costs and alleviate their financing difficulties. It also broadens financing channels and raise the proportion of direct financing. This is one of the important goals of the multi-level capital market reform. However，there are some obstacles in the development of regional equity markets，such as unclear positioning，non-homogenized market and excessive policy dependence. This work aims to analyze these challenges and provide suggestions to overcome these obstacles. We propose to clarify the government regulatory responsibilities and clearly position regional equity markets. It includes improving the regulation structure，strengthening the policy guidance，and reinforcing the market-oriented allocation of resources. This work is important to developing layered and differentiated capital market system.
Key Words：Regional Equity Markets，Financing of Micro and Medium-sized Enterprises，Market-Oriented Reform of Capital Market
The Identification and Coping Strategies of Legal Risks in the Construction of
“one Belt and one Road”
Li Yu-bi & Wang Lan
Abstract：Countries along “one Belt and one Road” are quite different from China in many aspects，such as law system，degree of opening and marketing，situation of rule of law and protectionism. Chinese enterprises may meet a lot of legal risks which derive from investment，trade，market access，IPR，labor and environmental protection. In order to cope with all these risks，government can sign investment protection agreements with investing partners，build consultative，guiding and serving institutions of overseas investment and trade together with relative legal system，carry out special training of risk control and perfect overseas investment insurance system. Meanwhile，enterprises should learn laws and regulations of relevant countries，run legally，comply with international trade rules，pay attention to dispute settlement system，make use of intermediary agencies，conduct due diligence investigation and improve risk prevention consciousness.
Key Words：one Belt and one Road，Legal Risk，Identification，Control
Framing ofMass Tort Relief’s Thoughts
——based on the perspective of punitive damages system
Abstract：Mass torts cannot be taken as general torts with a single victim or a small number of victims. The thought of mass tort relief is to find the balance of interests between the infringer and many victims. And it is difficult to meet the relief needs if we continue to have the idea of compensatory damages. Based on the perspective of the punitive damages system of mass torts，we should actively follow the trend of the expansion of legislation，return to the theoretical basis of legitimacy and the realistic function，and develop the thought of mass tort relief.
Key Words：Mass Torts，Punishment，Compensation
Problems and Countermeasures on the Legal Regulation of Major
Administrative Decision-Making Procedure
Abstract：The procedure regulation has been the consensus of legal regulation to major administrative decision-making，but a number of substantial issues are still controversial，such as the major administrative decision-making，as an uncertain legal concept，is easily confused with general administrative decision-making and normative documents，which needs to be clarified. In practice，there are several problems which are of great significance to improve decision-making process and related mechanism，including how to deal with the relationship between the government’s and its department’s decision-making，the relationship of administrative decisions between higher and lower levels，the relationship between decision-making publicity and information publicity，the relationship between legitimacy evaluation and legitimacy review etc，.
Key Words：Major Administrative Decision–Making Procedure，Rule of Law，Uncertain Legal Concept
The Practice and Innovation in the Management of Properties Involved in
Criminal Cases in Remote and Less Developed Areas
——A Case Study of a Pilot Project in Mianning of SiChuan Provice
Abstract：The current mechanism of management of properties involved in criminal cases in our country has such defects as incomplete regulations，disordered transfer and irregular norms. Since the fourth plenary session of the 18th central committee of CPC，the central “Two Offices” has initiated a guideline on this issue，stipulating the goal and approaches for reformation. As a pilot unit，Mianning，which is a typical place of remote and less developed areas，has established by exploration a “1+3+N” model of management of properties involved in criminal cases. Under that model the involved properties are largely to be stored in a central warehouse，and 3 remote and special storehouses and several entrusted managing entities are also used as supplementary places. This new model is characterized by the leading role of the politics and law committee of CPC and central and joint management by public security organs，procuratorial organs and people’s courts in terms of places，mechanisms and information networks. Thus，this model guarantees standard，safe，specialized，cost controlling and effective management of the properties involved in criminal cases. The practical experiences derived from the pilot project in Mianning have high promotional values for other areas，considering the inadequate resources for handling a variety of cases in most districts of our country.
Key Words：Properties Involved in Criminal Cases，Centralized Management，Entrusted Management
Institutional Environment，Incentive-Constraints mechanism and Intergovernmental Cooperation：A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan
Yang Zhi-yun & Mao Shou-long
Abstract：The key to the institutionalization of intergovernmental cooperation is to understand the conditions and mechanism of cooperation. The conceptual framework of intergovernmental cooperation in the western context can be referenced to China. Administrative decentralization，developmental localism and the promotion of the cadre tournament system are not conducive to intergovernmental cooperation，but the wicked problems and interdependence has changed the institutional environment. The constraints mechanism are made up of political incentives，intergovernmental contracts or commitments；the incentives mechanism are composed of coordination，performance evaluation and revenue sharing. The interaction under the incentives and constraints mechanism shapes the multiply levels of cooperation process. The case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan shows the framework’s validity and uniqueness variables.
Key Words：Intergovernmental Cooperation，Developmental Localism，Incentive Mechanism，Constraint Mechanism
The Dilemma between Administrative Reform and Food and Drug Regulatory Capacity
Abstract：The latest round of administrative reform started since 2014，which integrated Industry and Commerce Administration，Quality Supervision Bureau and Food and Drug Administration into a new Market Supervision Administration （MSA） at local level. A controversial topic is，whether comprehensive enforcement institution improves food and drug regulatory capacity? Based on government capacity theory of WDR 2003 and regulation quality report by OECD，we construct “GOAL-STRUCTURE-ACTION” framework to analyze the relationship between institution and capacity. Institutional reform brings conflict of policy goals，mismatch between function and resource，as well as structural dilutions of expertise，which increase regulatory resources while not promote regulatory capacity. Policy recommendations are followed.
Key Words：Food and Drug Safety，Market Supervision Administration，Administrative Reform，Regulatory Capacity
Attitude of County-Level officials on Deliberative Democracy in China
——An Analysis based on the questionnaire survey of local officials
Abstract：In the process of practice of deliberative democracy between officials and citizens on specific public policy，the attitude of officials to express true opinions directly affects the effects of consultation. Using multi class logistic model for empirical analysis，this paper found that officials who have positive expectations on negotiation results and hold inclusive attitude on democracy are inclined to express true opinions
Key Words：Deliberative Democracy，County-Level officials，True Opinions
The Characteristics，Causes and Enlightenments of Deutsche Bank Crisis
Dong Xiao-jun & Zhong Zhen
Abstract：Deutsche Bank is the largest bank in Germany and Europe，which is regarded as a model of sound financial management and prudent supervision in Germany. Deutsche Bank had successfully resisted the impact of two major crises. But in recent years，Deutsche Bank gradually fell into crisis because of the business failure，the blind area of financial supervision and the external pressure from the United States. As a warning，we should introspect the blind area of our financial supervision and effectively prevent the cross-border business risks of Chinese financial institutions，and thus deepen the reform of financial supervision system.
Key Words：the Blind Area of Financial Supervision，Cross-Border Business Risks，Financial Supervision Reform
Overcome the Middle Income Trap：A Comparative Study between Brazil and
the Republic of Korea
Yue Yun-xia & Shi Pei-ran
Abstract：After entering the middle income stage，Brazil and the Republic of Korea experienced a similar trend of development. However，Brazil then has been stepped into the so called “Middle Income Trap”，while Korea emerges as a high income country in a relatively short period of time. Learning from the experiences and lessons of these two countries in the past 50 years，we find out that high-quality growth is the core element of the success of Korea. Meanwhile，the difficulties Brazil experienced，in fact，come from the insufficient and volatile growth rate. Under the export-oriented development mode，the growth difference between these two countries could be attributed to the failure of the economic growth transmission mechanism of Brazil. Therefore，Brazil needs to establish a sustainable support from the export to the economic export，and to build up a smoothing “external demand-internal demand” transmission mechanism. These will，in the end，help form interconnected economic growth in an efficient way. Meanwhile，to avoid the conflicts due to the Middle Income Trap，Brazilian government should also adjust and transform its public policies under the current economic situation.
Key Words：Middle Income Trap，Export-Oriented，Export，Growth，Transmission Mechanism